Open source PostgreSQL veteran releases version 14 • The Register

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Fans of open source databases had a reason to celebrate this week with the release of PostgreSQL 14, an iteration of the RDBMS offering performance improvements for heavy and distributed workloads.

The seasonal fall release was released yesterday, and while PostgreSQL 14 may not include an impressive new feature set, over 220 updates add performance improvements for high-end systems. said Umair Shahid, head of PostgreSQL at open source technology. Percona advice.

“The number of additional features is significantly more, but no feature carries the full version. The version focuses on the performance of the database: not only the internal components of the database perform better, but also the SQL queries running faster and emphasizing parallelism, ”said Shahid.

While PostgreSQL was designed as a vertically scalable database, the open source community has focused on implementing features that help with horizontal scalability, which makes upgrading much easier. scale of applications and improves database performance, he said.

Foreign data wrappers – which have supported federated workloads on PostgreSQL for some time – can now perform parallel table scans allowing developers to create foreign tables in distributed databases or horizontally to run queries in parallel, which makes performance “considerably faster,” Shahid said.

Then there is the “bulk data insertion” implemented for the foreign data wrapper which also improves performance on distributed workloads. “I would say these two major features focused on distributed workloads help with horizontal scaling,” he added.

There are options, however, if you are looking for a distributed relational database. Just a few weeks ago The register reported news from Yugabyte, a distributed system inspired by Google’s Spanner and compatible with PostgreSQL on the top half, for example.

While there are other systems on the market that are distributed by design, they target specific use cases, Shahid said. PostgreSQL – with an OSI-approved PostgreSQL license – is an ACID-compliant general-purpose database designed for a very wide range of use cases, he said.

PostgreSQL 14 is also designed to improve throughput with adjustments to the handling of B-tree indexes – a self-balancing tree data structure – by reducing index overhead on tables with frequently updated indexes.

Bruce Momjian, support company veep and PostgreSQL evangelist and contributor EDB, said, “Once we split a B-tree page in the index, we can’t join it again, due to index pathology. B-tree, so there is some code that improves that. “

The parallelism and indexing improvements were part of the updates that target performance at the top of PostgreSQL implementations, he said.

“It’s kind of a focus on some of the limitations we had at the top. I admit it’s always been a challenge for us,” said Momjian, who is also a key member of the PostgreSQL Global Development Group. “We always started with the low end and worked our way up. That high end, where you would mostly see Oracle, was kind of the little bit that we didn’t really do. [which is] the big takeaway for that.

“We are seeing reports in Russia, Europe, the United States and Japan where people are pushing the upper limits of PostgreSQL and luckily we have the developers to push that limit a bit.”

Typically, these types of workloads would be characteristic of less than 5% of PostgreSQL implementations in nature, he said. ®


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